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What is the difference between rationalized units and SI units?

Units in which the 4π’s have been eliminated from Maxwell’s equations are called rationalized; SI units are an example of rationalized units, in which the 4π’s appear in Coulomb’s law and the Biot-Savart law (in the factors 1/4πǫ0and µ0/4π), but not in Maxwell’s equations.

What is the difference between Heaviside units and Gaussian units?

Lorentz–Heaviside units, like SI units but unlike Gaussian units, are rationalized, meaning that there are no factors of 4π appearing explicitly in Maxwell's equations. That these units are rationalized partly explains their appeal in quantum field theory: the Lagrangian underlying the theory does not have any factors of 4π in these units.

What are the factors of 4π in the Heaviside units?

Lorentz–Heaviside units, like SI units but unlike Gaussian units, are rationalized, meaning that there are no factors of 4π appearing explicitly in Maxwell's equations. The fact that these units are rationalized partly explains their appeal in quantum field theory: the Lagrangian underlying the theory does not have any factors of 4π in these units.

How do you calculate Gaussian units in Heaviside Lorentz?

In the gaussian system, Coulomb's equation is F = QQ/R 2. In the Heaviside Lorentz system, F = qq/4πR 2. From this, one sees that QQ = qq/4π, that the Gaussian units are larger by a factor of √4π.


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